FOOT IN THE DOOR by asking customers to comply with a small favour, they are more likely to comply with a larger request later. I.e. foot in the door works by first getting a small ‘yes’ and then later getting an even bigger ‘yes’. Freedman and Fraser, 1966, found that people were significantly more likely to comply to future requests, when the foot in the door technique was implemented.As can be seen in the graph below.
MERE EXPOSURE. If customers sign up to the Newsletter they are sent weekly updates of offers, new ranges, new products etc. Kunst-Wilson, and Zajonc (1980) found that simply exposing peopleto a familiar stimulus led people to rate it more positively than other unfamiliar stimuli. Therefore, the familiarity that comes with signing up to the newsletter may lead to customers choosing New Look over other options.
COMMITMENT AND CONSISTENCY people are prone to be consistent in their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviours. If they join the newsletter to get 20% off, the will feel as though they should keep this commitment to themselves, and go along with purchasing an item. This boils down to the principle of alignment, whereby we like our values, beliefs, and actions to align. If they do not we feel the tension of cognitive dissonance, to avoid this we may change our behaviours accordingly. I.e. if you sign up to a New Look newsletter, and receive emails, and browse their new ranges, then the alignment to this behaviour is going on to purchase the items. Having consistency provides us with a valuable mental shortcut, it reduces the amount of information we need to consider. This means that ultimately, from a marketing perspective consistency is extremely useful. Once an initial commitment is made, the individuals will create their own sense of consistency, which will lead them to follow through with a decision (i.e. follow through with making a purchase to achieve 20% off).
SCARCITY ‘LIMITED TIME ONLY’ with a time limit, the opportunity seems more valuable, fear of losing out on something can be a powerful motivator. People are more likely to desire something which is rare, or limited in quantity of time (Cialdini, 2007). This is also due to the psychological theory of reactance, whereby we do not want to lose our freedom of choice, and so in a panicked rush created by the scarcity tactic we cling onto this, and often choose to follow through with a commitment or purchase (Brehm, 1981).
Kunst-Wilson, W. R., & Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Affective discrimination of stimuli that cannot be recognized. Science, 207(4430), 557-558.
Freedman, J. L., & Fraser, S. C. (1966). Compliance without pressure: the foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of personality and social psychology, 4(2), 195
Cialdini, R. B., & Cialdini, R. B. (2007). Influence: The psychology of persuasion (pp. 173-174). New York: Collins.
Brehm, S. S. (1981). Psychological reactance and the attractiveness of unobtainable objects: Sex differences in children's responses to an elimination of freedom. Sex Roles, 7(9), 937-949.