Behaviour Change

PROPAGANDA FOR CHANGE is a project created by the students of Behaviour Change (ps359) and Professor Thomas Hills at the Psychology Department of the University of Warwick. This work was supported by funding from Warwick's Institute for Advanced Teaching and Learning.

Thursday, February 28, 2013

The Sony Stamina Camcorder



The Sony stamina camcorder advert shows a crazy series of events unfold just after the batteries in a guy’s camera die out. This advert fits into the consequences template of Goldberg’s (1999) schema of templates. This is when an advert shows the implications of either owning or not yet owning the product the advertisers are trying to sell. More specifically, this advert fits into the inverted consequences version which warns of the consequences if you do not buy the product. It is obvious from the video that this is the technique the advertisers are going for because it warns that if you do not own this camcorder (which has extra long-life batteries) then you will miss the most exciting thing you could have filmed with your camcorder. People will not want this to happen to them so they will (theoretically) go out and buy the product. Then they can rest assured in the knowledge that if anything interesting happens they have their trusty 'stamina' camcorder working and ready to film.

References:
Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing science, 18, 333-351. 

Wednesday, February 27, 2013

Take longer to look for bikes...




The above advert makes use of the ‘Consequences Template’ described by Goldenberg, Mazursky and Solomon (1999); or more specifically the 'Inverted consequences template.' This template warns against the implications of not following the recommendations/advice featured in the advert.
Here we see a seriously dangerous looking crash between a driver and a motorcyclist which resulted from the driver not taking enough care when deciding whether to drive on or not and not seeing the cyclist at all. This is an overt message warning the viewer of the possible consequences of not properly looking for motorcyclists whilst driving i.e- you could possibly not see one and result in a crash and a possible death. This visual foreshadowing reinforces the "follow the advice of this advert or else said outcome will happen to you...." message that the Inverted consequences template represents. 

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science18, 333-351.
ALL YOU CAN EAT



This advertisement uses several techniques to catch audience’s attention, but the most obvious and central is its format.

Goldenberg et al. (1999) made a classification of types of templates by analyzing a sample of 200 adverts. They named six main groups basing on the properties of the main object shown in each one and the relation between them and their surrounding characteristics with the message to be transmitted.
In this advert they can be observed two main templates. The most prominent is the Extreme Situation Template, given that it highlights the quality of the service given by Oldtimer Restaurants by exaggerating the amount of food (represented by the cars that go into the tunnel, making allusion of the slogan “ALL you can eat” by using this literal interpretation). It consists specifically on an Extreme Worth version of this template. Its graphical specific scheme is represented in Figure 1. 

Otherwise, the format could be also seen from an Interactive Experiment Template’s view, since a “real person” experiencing the restaurant’s great offer interacts with the audience to be convinced that watch the poster from their cars, concretely the Active version of it.

Summing up the humor and imagination used and the effect that a big and easily seen poster like this makes, we have a very creative and catching advert. 





Fig. 1:
Extreme Situation Template’s Specific Scheme (Goldenberg et al., 1999)



References

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The Fundamental Templates of Quality Ads. Marketing Science. 18, 333- 351



Westfield Shopping Malls




          


          The aim of this advertisement is to promote the reliability of the Westfield Shopping Malls through time. To demonstrate it, the dimensionality alteration template described by Golbenberg, Mazursky & Solomon (1999) is used. Specifically, the time leap version is employed as a technique to display the different changes in fashion around 100 years. 
           
           They suggested that this technique emphasises the relation of the product and its environment by manipulating and highlighting the time. London’s styles from 1911 to 2011 are chronologically shown with a couple dancing along the changes of music tendencies through this period of human’s history. 

          At the end of the commercial, a modern Westfield shopping mall is used as setting relating, this way, Westfield malls with the evolution of clothing trends and sending the viewer the message of these malls’ reliability on the continuous changing fashion.



Reference:

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351

Telefonica affordable call rates





















This Telefonica advertisement enhances the affordable prices that the company offers. In this case, long-distance calls are promoted by presenting a man that could be the consequence of a relationship between a Scottish and a Japanese, or another from a Turkish and a Swedish.


Goldenberg and colleagues suggested that successful advertisements are characterized by abstract patterns –creativity templates- that can lead to more effective outcomes. Among the templates described in his work, the consequence template can be observed in this print. In this case, it indicates the implications of taking advantage of the great deals the company offers. Moreover, the advertisement adds humor in the message, which is a method that has been proved to attract attention and increase liking if applied correctly (Weinberger & Gulas, 1992). The combination of both techniques is a good tool to make an effective advertisement.


Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality adsMarketing Science18, 333-351.

Weinberger, M. G. & Gulas, C. S. (1992). The impact of humor in advertising: A review. Journal of Advertising, Vol. 21(4), 35-59.

Tuesday, February 26, 2013

Interactive Viagra




This is an interactive print advertisement for Viagra. It shows an older man and an overweight man, two groups of men that have an increased susceptibility to erectile dysfunction, (Moreira, Lobo, Diament, Nicolosi & Glasser, 2003) and depicts them looking happy and invincible. The cardboard advert has a hole in it, which encourages readers to put their thumb through the hole, in order to show that Viagra alleviates erectile dysfunction.

It uses the activation version of the interactive experiment template (Goldenberg, Mazurksy & Solomon, 1999), which requires the viewer to directly engage with the advert. By doing so, the effects of Viagra become clear, in a very humorous manner. Humour has been found to increase liking and memorability for a product (Strick, van Baaren, Holland, & van Knippenberg, 2009).




References:

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.

Moreira, E. D., Lobo, C. F. L., Diament, A., Nicolosi, A., & Glasser, D. B. (2003). Incidence of erectile dysfunction in men 40 to 69 years old: results from a population-based cohort study in Brazil. Adult Urology, 61, 431-436.

Strick, M., van Baaren, R. B., Holland, R. W., & van Knippenberg, A. (2009). Humor in advertisements enhances product liking by mere association. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15, 35.

Where r...

This advert shows the consequences of texting while driving. We see a young man with severe brain damage then hear his story about how this occurred, texting whilst driving.
This advert demonstrates the dimensional alteration template (Goldenberg, 1999) by showing the boy after his accident and explaining afterwards. It also uses the consequences template as we see that the consequence of texting by driving is, in this case, severe brain injury.


References

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D. et al. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 333-351.

Anando Milk





This is an advert created by Anando Milk promoting their product. This advertisement is based on the mind of children where the world of fantasy is plausible, and by drinking the milk would allow them to have supernatural powers (in this case its super strength). 

This method of advertising uses the extreme consequences version of the consequences template. Normally, drinking milk would lead the children to have a healthier lifestyle. However, in this advertisement, it exaggerated the consequences of drinking their milk into gaining supernatural powers and allows the children to move buildings.  Furthermore, this extreme and unrealistic consequence is easily recognized by all and leaves a deeper impression for their target consumers. 


Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.

Nexus Productions: Intel 'The Chase'




This advert for Intel’s Core i5 processor was designed to show off how capable it is under strain from a lot of different applications. The video shows an incredible chase scene which takes place in a variety of different formats from live action to animation, and through a bunch of pop-up windows using internet pages, video applications, html coding etc. It’s enrapturing, enthralling, and when Intel realised how popular it was becoming they made the decision to have it transformed into an interactive advertisement. What better way is there to show people who do have an Intel Core i5 processor that it’s amazing and was a great purchase, and to highlight to people with a lesser processor that they need to upgrade than to try their computers at actually recreating this advert? 

This advert nicely demonstrates Goldenberg, Mazursky and Solomon’s (1999) ‘Interactive Experiment Template’ in that the viewer becomes aware of the advantages of the product by interacting with the advertisement. For this, case, we get to play out the advert live on our computers, with our own popping up boxes, rather than just watching the whole thing recorded on someone else’s computer. I’d be tempted to argue that it even feels interactive without actually being interactive even if you simply watch the youtube advert! In a way, just from the sheer number of popups this gives your computer and how many different mediums it plays over it could potentially also be argued that this demonstrates the ‘Extreme Situation Template’. However, the whole purpose of the advertisement is to show off the power of the processor involved so I’d argue that this might not be such an extreme situation – I’ve been known to attempt having a movie playing whilst having a good number of internet tabs open and a game running at the same time on my laptop!


References:

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18(3), 333-351.

ENPA- Against Animal Testing



This ad by the ENPA – Ente Nazionale Protezione Animali challenges the issue of cosmetics and animal testing. The advert uses the Replacement Version of the Pictorial Analogy Template very cleverly by replacing a perfume bottle with a miniature dog.

 

Product space in this ad is represented by the mist coming out of the dog’s mouth, meaning to be the perfume itself. The miniature dog is the symbol used for a perfume container or cosmetics in general and is the organization's representation of the situation. The dog and the perfume, or the product space and the symbol are linked through the fact that the dog is the same size as a perfume bottle would be, and the lady in the picture is holding it exactly the way she would hold a perfume bottle. The product, in this case the perfume bottle is replaced by the miniature dog in order to convey the message of the cruelty of animal testing.

 

Another model that also loosely applies is the Extreme Situation Template, the Absurd Alternative Version. The dog as a perfume bottle is literally impossible and the ad viewers know this, but the extremity of the situation and how impossible it is causes the viewers to infer how negative the conveyed message – in this case animal testing – is.

 

Along with the use of these models, the ad is also effective in its use of an actual animal. A study investigating the use of animals in advertising found that when people view an ad with an animal present, they use more heuristic processing than systematic and this leads to an increased positive attitude towards the ad and the message or brand (Lancendorfer, K.M., Atkin, J.L. & Reece, B.B., 2006).

 

 

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science18, 333-351.

 

Lancendorfer, K.M., Atkin, J.L. & Reece, B.B. (2006). Animals in advertising: Love dogs? Love the ad! Journal of Business Research, 61, 384-391. 

Monday, February 25, 2013

Cheaper Branded products only at Asda



In this advertisement, Asda is portraying that the 'branded' products sold in Asda is cheaper compared to other big supermarkets such as Sainsbury's, Morrisons and Tesco. Therefore, consumers who want to save more money should choose to shop at Asda over other supermarkets, as they would get the same things but with a cheaper price.

This is an example of the 'competition template' proposed by Goldenberg, Mazurksy and Solomon (1999). The advertisement presents a situation where the main brand is subjected to competition with other brands, in this case supermarkets. The ad represents the 'worth in competition' template, as it's showing that the branded products are worth the same in all supermarkets, but they are sold at a cheaper price in Asda. Hence, consumers should be more persuaded to buy the branded products at Asda as they would save more money. 


 Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.

WWF Fish Head Climate Change


This advert was created by WWF as part of the “Fishmen Campaign” to increase awareness about climate change in Belgium. The advert depicts what awaits mankind if climate change is not addressed with the slogan “STOP CLIMATE CHANGE BEFORE IT CHANGES YOU” and shows that people will have fish heads if they do not act to reduce climate change. This is a very extreme consequence which the consumer knows will not actually happen but it acts to shock the audience. 
This advert is a classic example of the Inverted Consequences version of the Consequences Template which shows what happens if the consumer does NOT follow the adverts recommendation (Goldenberg, Mazursky, & Solomon, 1999).

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.

Big 'n' Juicy


This is an advert promoting McDonald's largest hamburger ever, The Big 'n' Juicy, where the consumer is able to take a huge paper napkin from McDonald's giant napkin dispenser.

This is an example of the interactive experiment template (Goldenberg, Mazursky & Solomon, 1999). Typically, ads of an interactive nature emphasize a problem that can be solved by performing the required action. This is achieved in this advert by demonstrating the unique aspect of these napkins and therefore the accompanying burger - the sheer size. The audience is able to engage in an imaginative, fun and creative action which enables active personal participation, sure to increase interest and memory of the product.
The physical action, executable on the spot is indicative of the activation version of the interactive experiment template described by Goldenberg et al. (1999).

Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., & Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.

PRICE-DROP TV

 



This is a clip form a shopping channel which people tune in to in order to ‘grab a bargain’. In this clip, the presenter is trying to sell a cross-trainer to the viewers. A lot of persuasive techniques are used.

Firstly, they follow the interactive experiment template proposed by Goldenberg et al (1999) which is claimed to be one of the fundamental templates for quality ads. The presenter does this by actively showing the viewer’s how the cross-trainer works by way of a demonstration. This can encourage people to buy the product as it gives them better, more informed knowledge of what they are purchasing as they can effectively ‘see for themselves’ how it works and what it does. 

Secondly, there is only a limited time in which viewers can purchase the product and there are also a limited number of products available to buy, ‘once they have gone they have gone’. Giving the impression that time is running out to get the product at this discounted price makes viewers more inclined to impulse buy as they feel under pressure and may get an adrenaline rush as they can see how many items are selling, how many are left, and how quickly they are being sold. The viewers don’t want to miss their chance to get their hands on the bargain. 

To further this, as the presenter demonstrates the amount of good things that the cross-trainer does, at the same time, the price of the product lowers also creating frenzy with the viewers and creating the impression that they are getting an even better bargain. This persuasive trick creates temptation and encourages the viewers to purchase as they have to make snap, rash decisions as to whether they want the product or not whilst also seeing how good and cheap it is at the same time. 

Finally, by selling the product via a television channel that has nothing to do with the brand of the product itself (i.e. not the company whose product it is) and by the outside company demonstrating how good the product is by using the interactive experiment template as discussed above, makes the consumer have more trust in what the presenter is saying as it creates the impression that they have no financial gains from trying to sell the product to the audience. Pfeffer et al (2006) asked participants to imagine themselves as a senior editor for a book publisher and having to deal with an experienced and very successful author. They had to read excerpts for the negotiation of the publishing of the author’s book. One group read excerpts listing the authors accomplishments from the authors agent whereas the second group read the exact same excerpts but from the author himself. The participants rated the author more highly on every scale (such as likability) when the authors agent ‘sang his praises’ rather than when the author himself ‘bigged himself up’. This demonstrates how a product may be seen as more favourable and attractive when promoted by someone who is not actively involved in the company whose product it is. Essentially when a company is ‘bigging itself up’ via adverts etc., this is not as successful as when an outsider demonstrates how good the product is.


REFERENCES
 
Goldenberg, J., Mazursky, D., Solomon, S. (1999). The fundamental templates of quality ads. Marketing Science, 18, 333-351.


Pfeffer, J, C.T. Fong, R. B. Cialdini & Portnoy, R.R. (2006). Overcoming the self-promotion dilemma: interpersonal attraction and extra help as a consequence of who sing’s ones praises. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 32, 1362-74.